Dharmesh Varade

Associate Professor
PhD (Chemistry), VNSGU Surat
Areas of interest
Soft Matter, Nanomaterials, Nanocomposites, Surfactants

Dharmesh Varade has been an Associate Professor at SEAS since September 2014. Earlier, he worked as a Postdoctoral Researcher at several reputed institutes like Kawamura Institute of Chemical Research, Japan from March 2011 to March 2014; University of Paris XI, France (CNRS Fellowship) from September 2009 to August 2010; University College Dublin, Ireland from June 2008 to December 2008 (Marie Curie SOCON Fellowship); and Yokohama National University, Japan from July 2005 to March 2008 (JSPS Fellowship). He has also worked with the CSIR project from April 2003 to June 2005 at VNSGU, Surat as a Research Associate. His research areas are synthesis and characterization of Nanomaterials, Nanocomposites, Wormlike Micelles, Foams, and Microemulsions. He has published more than 60 research papers in international peer-reviewed journals with a total citation till 2018 exceeding 1500, and an h index of 21 (Google Scholar). He is an active member of review committees of leading journals of ACS and Elsevier. He has presented his research papers in more than 10 different countries and received the best presentation award in International Congress on Advanced Materials, Bangkok. Currently he has research grant from DST-SERB (38 Lakhs) and grant from Indian Tobacco Company-ITC (52 Lakhs). He is supervising 3 PhD students and 11 UGRP students working in the area of surfactants and nanomaterials



1. Solution Properties of Mixed Surfactant Systems:

PI: Dr. Dharmesh Varade:

Members:Gajendra Rajput and Niki Pandya

Funding Organization: ITC Life Sciences & Technology Centre, ITC LTD. Bangalore

Funding Amount: approx. Rs. 52 lacs

Duration: 3 years, August 2017 to July 2020

Project Summary:

The main objective of this project is to develop profound understanding with tailored approach for utilizing surfactants in mixtures. This project involves a multitude of activities ranging from selection of surfactant mixtures, understanding and optimization of surfactant self-assembly and evaluating the physicochemical properties of the mixed surfactant systems. We envisioned a long term program to develop innovative solutions for creating design rules for utilizing these surfactant combinations in formulating the products.


2. Superstable Responsive Aqueous Foam for Synthesis of Novel Biomimetic Materials

PI: Dr. Dharmesh Varade

Co-PI: Dr. Ajay Karakoti

Members: Manyala Dhana Lakshmi

Funding Organization: DST - SERB Early Career Research Award from DST, India

Funding Amount: Approx. 38 Lakh

Duration: 3 years, Jan 2017-Jan 2020

Proposal Summary: 

The proposed project is on a simple and sustainable system that combines a good foamability and an outstanding foam stability, which can then be readily tuned to weak foam stability by changing the polymorphism of the system upon heating. To achieve this, catanionic surfactant systems, i.e. mixtures of cationic and anionic surfactants will be utilized. Such mixtures are expected to show decent properties with respect to foam formation and stabilization as they are well-known to pack very competently at the gas/water interface, affords free surfactant in solution and form vesicles usually considered at thermodynamic equilibrium. The existence of vesicles will affords bulk viscoelastic properties and provides good foam stabilities once generated as by efficiently blocking the liquid drainage. Here, the foamability and the outstanding foam stability of that system at room temperature will be studied, establishing the link to the supramolecular assembly (vesicles) in water; this stable foam can be used as templates for synthesis of novel biomimetic materials. In solution, those vesicles may melt into micelles at a temperature depending on the nature of the surfactants. Hence, this can allows us to tune the foam stability with temperature. The stabilizing surfactant aggregates adsorbed at the gas/liquid interface is quite analogous with the extended form of Langmuir monolayers. These monolayers, arranged parallel to each other and separated by Plateau border, offers greater possibility for the binding various charged ions at the gas–liquid interface, thereby, utilizing the liquid lamellae as a plausible template for growing a wide variety of biomimetic materials like metal and alloy nanoparticles (Au, Pt, Ag, Pd, Ni, Co etc.), metal oxide (CeO2) and metal oxide on metal (MOM) nanoparticles (CeO2@Au). We aim to study the enzymatic activity of bimetallic nanoparticles and compare the reactivity with individual nanoparticles particles prepared via the aqueous foam method. In addition, we would like to study the enzymatic activity of metal oxide on metal system using CeO2@Au as the model system as it will combine the peroxidase activity of gold with superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of cerium oxide nanoparticles. This system if successful will be unique as we will be able to demonstrate and create an inorganic nanoparticle system that can show dual enzymatic activity in one system.


Total Published 60 (Total citation 2018: >1500, h index: 21; Google Scholar)

  1. D. Varade, K. Haraguchi, “Nanocomposite Hydrogel as a Template for Synthesis of Mono and Bimetallic Nanoparticles” Express Polymers Letters, (Accepted) (IF = 2.983)
  2. D. Varade, S. Iki, K. Aramaki, "Tuning the Viscoelastic Properties of Wormlike Surfactant Micelles by Oil Solubilization" J. Nanofluids (Accepted)  (IF = 1.0)
  3. MD Lakshmi, G Rajput, N Pandya, D Varade, “Enhanced Foamability and Foam Stability of Polyoxyethylene Cholesteryl Ether in Occurrence of Ionic Surfactants” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 551, 81-86, 2018.  (IF = 2.714).
  4. K Shah, S Bhagat, D Varade, S Singh, “Novel synthesis of polyoxyethylene cholesteryl ether coated Fe-Pt nanoalloys: A multifunctional and cytocompatible bimetallic alloy exhibiting intrinsic chemical catalysis and biological enzyme-like activities” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 553, , 50-57, 2018.
  5. Varade, D., "Creation of Gold Nanoparticles by UV Photoactivation of Polyoxyethylene Cholesteryl Ether" J. Nanofluids, 5, 1-4, 2017.
  6. Varade, D., "Novel Approach for the Preparation of Bimetallic Fe-Pt/Clay Nanocomposite Material for Catalytic Application" J. Nanofluids, 6, 1-5, 2017.
  7. Varade, D., Haraguchi, K. Clay-supported Novel Bimetallic Core–Shell Co-Pt and Ni-Pt Nanocrystals with High Catalytic Activities (2014) Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16 (47), 25770 - 25774 (IF: 4.449). DOI: 10.1039/C4CP04194A
  8. Varade, D., Haraguchi, K. Novel Bimetallic Core–Shell Nanocrystal/Clay Composites with Superior Catalytic Activities (2014) Chem. Commun., 50, 3014-3017, (IF:6.567). DOI: 10.1039/c3cc49110b.
  9. Varade, D., Haraguchi, K. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Planar Flexible Silver Crystal Belts (2014) Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 880-884. (IF: 4.449). DOI: 10.1039/c3cp54214a.
  10. Varade, D., Abe, H., Yamauchi, Y., Haraguchi, K. Superior CO Catalytic Oxidation on Novel Pt/Clay Nanocomposites (2013) ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 5, 11613-11617 , (IF: 7.145), DOI: 10.1021/am402998q
  11. Varade, D., Haraguchi, K. Super-thermostable platinum nanoparticles on fluorinated clay (2013) Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 15, 16477-16480. (IF: 4.449), DOI: 10.1039/c3cp52938j.
  12. Varade, D., Haraguchi, K. Synthesis of Highly Active and Thermally Stable Nanostructured Pt/Clay Materials by Clay Mediated In Situ Reduction (2013) Langmuir, 29, 1977−1984. (IF: 3.993), DOI: 10.1021/la3044945
  13. Arriaga, L.R., Varade, D., Carriere, D., Drenckhan, W., Langevin, D. Surface rheology of catanionic layers adsorbed from solid-like vesicles and their role on foam stability, (2013) Langmuir, 29, 3214−3222. (IF: 3.993) DOI: 10.1021/la304868n
  14. Varade, D., Haraguchi, K., Efficient Approach for Preparing Gold Nanoparticles in Layered Double Hydroxide: Synthesis, Structure, and Properties (2012) J. Mater. Chem. 22, 17649-17655. (IF: 5.96) DOI: 10.1039/C2JM31993D
  15. Varade, D., Haraguchi, K., One-pot Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles and their Ordered Self-Assembly Nanostructures (2012) Soft Matter 8 (14), 3743-3746. (IF: 3.798) DOI: 10.1039/C2SM07004A
  16. Varade, D., Carriere, D., Arriaga, L.R., Fameau, A.-L., Rio, E., Langevin, D., Drenckhan, W. On the origin of the stability of foams made from catanionic surfactant mixtures (2011) Soft Matter, 7 (14), pp. 6557-6570. (IF: 3.798)  DOI: 10.1039/C1SM05374D
  17. Shrestha, L.K., Sato, T., Varade, D., Aramaki, K. Effect of polyol on the structure of nonionic surfactant reverse micelles in glycerol monoisostearate/decane systems (2010) Langmuir, 26 (5), pp. 3115-3120. (IF: 3.993) DOI: 10.1021/la9030602.
  18. Stubenrauch, C., Shrestha, L.K., Varade, D., Johansson, I., Olanya, G., Aramaki, K., Claesson, P. Aqueous foams stabilized by n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside, hexaethyleneglycol monododecyl ether, and their 1: 1 mixture (2009) Soft Matter, 5 (16), pp. 3070-3080. (IF: 3.798) DOI: 10.1039/B903125A
  19. Shrestha, L.K., Shrestha, R.G., Varade, D., Aramaki, K. Tunable parameters for the structural control of reverse micelles in glycerol monoisostearate/oil systems: A SAXS study (2009) Langmuir, 25 (8), pp. 4435-4442. (IF: 3.993) DOI: 10.1021/la8039225
  20. Varade, D., Aramaki, K., Stubenrauch, C. Phase diagrams of water-alkyltrimethylammonium bromide systems (2008) Colloids and Surfaces A: 315 (1-3), pp. 205-209. (IF: 2.760) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2007.07.031,
  21. Varade, D., Rodríguez-Abreu, C., Delgado, J.G., Aramaki, K. Viscoelasticity and mass transfer in phenol-CTAB aqueous systems (2007) Colloid and Polymer Science, 285 (15), pp. 1741-1747. (IF: 1.890) DOI10.1007/s00396-007-1761-2
  22. Varade, D., Sharma, S.C., Aramaki, K. Viscoelastic behavior of surfactants worm-like micellar solution in the presence of alkanolamide (2007) J. Colloid and Interface Science, 313 (2), pp. 680-685. (IF: 3.782) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2007.04.065,
  23. Varade, D., Rodríguez-Abreu, C., Shrestha, L.K., Aramaki, K. Wormlike micelles in mixed surfactant systems: Effect of cosolvents (2007) J. Phys. Chem. B, 111 (35), pp. 10438-10447. (IF: 3.187) DOI: 10.1021/jp0740999
  24. Varade, D., Ushiyama, K., Shrestha, L.K., Aramaki, K. Wormlike micelles in Tween-80/CmEO3 mixed nonionic surfactant systems in aqueous media (2007) J. Colloid and Interface Science, 312 (2), pp. 489-497. (IF: 3.782) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2007.02.090,
  25. Varade, D., Kunieda, H., Strey, R., Stubenrauch, C. Disconnected lamellar phases (Lα) in pseudobinary water-non-ionic surfactant systems: A general phenomenon (2006) J. Colloid and Interface Science, 300 (1), pp. 338-347. (IF: 3.782) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2006.03.083,
  26. Varade, D., Joshi, T., Aswal, V.K., Goyal, P.S., Hassan, P.A., Bahadur, P. Micellar behavior of mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyldimethylamine oxide in aqueous solutions (2005) Colloids and Surfaces A, 259 (1-3), pp. 103-109. (IF: 2.760) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.02.019
  27. Varade, D., Joshi, T., Aswal, V.K., Goyal, P.S., Hassan, P.A., Bahadur, P. Effect of salt on the micelles of cetyl pyridinium chloride (2005) Colloids and Surfaces A, 259 (1-3), pp. 95-101. (IF: 2.760) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.02.018
  28. Varade, D., Sharma, R., Aswal, V.K., Goyal, P.S., Bahadur, P. Effect of hydrotropes on the solution behavior of PEO/PPO/PEO block copolymer L62 in aqueous solutions (2004) European Polymer Journal, 40 (11), pp. 2457-2464. (IF: 3.485) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2004.06.022,


  1. “Novel Catalytically Active and Thermally Stable Bimetallic Nanocrystals in the Presence of Clay” Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Prof. Peng), Shanghai, China, 3 July 2017.
  2. “Nanostructured Materials: Wormlike Micelles Foams and Hydrogel” Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Prof. Yang), Shanghai, China, 4 July 2017.
  3. “Aqueous Foam Stabilized by Vesicles”, University of Maryland, USA, June 2017.
  4. “Surfactant Micelles and Foams” ITC Life Sciences, India September 23, 2016
  5. “Superstable Aqueous Foams” SVNIT, Surat, India on October 10, 2016.
  6. “Stability of Foams Made from Catanionic Surfactant Mixtures” Saga University, Saga, Japan. November 2015.
  7. “Research on Nanomaterials“ UTU University, Bardoli, India March 2014.
  8. “Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites“ SSCSSN, DDU, Nadiad, India December 2013.
  9. “Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles and their Self-Assembled Nanostructures” Yokohama National University, Japan 20th January 2012
  10. “Nanoaggregate Structures in Aqueous Surfactant Systems”, KICR, Japan 6th June 2011.
  11. “Rheology of Viscoelastic Wormlike Micelles”, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India 7th Dec 2010.
  12. “Rheology of Wormlike Micelles and Foaming Properties in Surfactant Mixtures”, IISER, Kolkatta, India 29th September 2010.
  13.  “Foamability and Foam Stability in Surfactant Mixtures”, CSIC/Institut de Quimica Avançada de Catalunya (IQAC), Barcelona, Spain26th July 2010.
  14. “Rheology and Foam Properties of Mixed Surfactant Systems” Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat, India, 22nd December 2009.


  1. D. Varade “Metal-Polymer-Clay Nanocomposite Hydrogels” Asian Polymer Association (APA)-2017, New Delhi, November 23-25, 2017. (Invited Talk, Local Organizing Committee Member)
  2. “Outstanding Stability of Aqueous Foams Made fromCatanionic Surfactant Mixtures” 7th Asian Conference on Colloid and Interface Science (ACCIS 2017) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 8-11, 2017. (Invited Talk and Chairperson)
  3. “Novel Catalytically Active and Thermally Stable Bimetallic Nanocrystals in the Presence of Clay” International Conference on Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology (ICNANO), Allahabad, India. March, 1-3, 2017. (Oral)
  4. “On the Origin of Stability of Foams Made from Catanionic Surfactant Mixtures”2nd National Conference of Surfactant & Colloids” UICT, Matunga, India. Feb 10-11, 2017. (Invited)
  5. “Surfactant a Ubiquitous Molecule” State level seminar on Chemistry: Meets Technological Development” V. S. Patel College, Bilimora, India. January 7, 2017. (Invited)
  6. “Stability of Foams Made from Catanionic Surfactants Mixtures” in International Conference on Frontiers at the Chemistry-Allied Sciences Interface (FCASI-2016), University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India. April 24-27, 2016. (Oral)
  7. “Nanostructured Materials for Pharmaceutical Applications”, Indian Council of Chemists, Bardoli, India. 26-28th Dec 2015. (Invited)
  8. “Catalytically Active Bimetallic Nanocrystals in the Presence of Clay” in 6th Asian Conference on Colloid and Interface Science (ACCIS 2015), Sasebo, Japan, 24-27 November 2015. (Oral)
  9. “Clay-Mediated Novel Approach for the Preparation of Catalytically Active Bimetallic Nanocrystals” National Conference on Emerging Trends and Advances in Chemical Sciences (ETACS-2015). Vidhyanagar, India,  8-9th October 2015. (Oral).
  10. Seminar on “Advanced Rheology”, By Anton Paar, Vadodara, India, 2015.
  11. “Clay-Supported Catalytically Active Core-Shell Co-Pt and Ni-Pt Nanocrystals”, T-NANO 2014, Ahmedabad, India, 15-17th December, 2014. (Poster)
  12. “Synthesis of Highly Active and Thermally Stable Nanostructured Pt/clay Materials by Clay Mediated in Situ Reduction”, ICMAT 2013, Singapore, July1-6, 2013. (Oral)
  13. “Nanostructured Pt/Clay Materials by Clay Mediated In Situ Reduction”, SPSJ Annual Meeting, Kyoto, Japan May 29-31, 2013 (Oral)
  14. “Synthesis of Highly Active and Thermally Stable Nanostructured Pt/Clay Materials by Clay Mediated In Situ Reduction”, MANA International Symposium, Tsukuba, Japan. Feb 27-Mar 1, 2013. (Poster)
  15. “In Situ Syntheses and Characteristics of Nanocomposites Containing Noble Metal Nanoparticles”, 61st Symposium on Macromolecules, Nagoya, Japan. 19-21 Sept 2012. (Oral)
  16. “Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles and their Self-Assemble Nanostructures via Wormlike Micelles”, SPSJ Annual Meeting, Pacifico Yokohama, Japan. May 29-31 2012, (Oral)
  17. “Orderly Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles and their Self-Assemble Nanostructures”, IACIS 2012, Sendai, Japan May 13-18. (Oral)
  18. “Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles and their Self-Assemble Nanostructures via Wormlike Micelles” Gel Symposium, Tokyo, Japan 11-12 January 2012. (Oral)
  19. “Superstable Foams made from Catanionic Surfactant Mixtures” 8th European Conference on Foams, Emulsions and Application, Sofia, Bulgaria 14-16 July 2010.
  20. “Self-Assembled Networks of Wormlike Micelles: Cosolvent Effect” Conference of the European Colloid and Interface Society (ECIS), Krakow, Poland from 31st August-5thSeptember 2008. (Poster)
  21. “Formation and disruption of worm-like micelles in mixed solvents of different polarity” Australian Colloid and Interface Symposium-2007, ACIS Sydney, Australia on 4-8th Feb 2007. (Oral)
  22. α) In Pseudobinary Water – Non-Ionic Surfactant Systems: A General Phenomenon” The 16th International symposium on surfactants in solutions, 2006 (SIS 2006), Seoul, Korea on 4th – 9th June, 2006. (Poster)
  23. Research paper presented at ’ Organized by Department of Chemistry, S. P. University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, India on 3-4th Dec’ 2002.

Organic Chemistry, General Chemistry, Surface Science & Nanotechnology

Consultancy: ITC Life Science, Bangalore


129, School of Engineering and Applied Science,
Ahmedabad University,
Ahmedabad Education Society FP. 4,
Near Commerce Six Roads,
Navrangpura, Ahmedabad - 380 009, India


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